The study of cellular immunity for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a new laboratory tool for monitoring patients who have been infected by the virus and/or have suffered from Covid19 disease.
For a long time, the immunity induced by vaccines has been attributed to the function of the antibodies generated, especially neutralizing antibodies, which block the entry of the virus into the target cells of the host, thus preventing infection. In turn, and due to its ability to provide immediate protection after exposure, the generation of antibodies has been the primary objective of vaccination against most pathogens. Along these lines, it is logical that this approach has also been used in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Currently, the different studies carried out and the epidemiological data indicate that the majority of Covid19 patients seroconvert and a large proportion of them with neutralizing antibodies. From here it is critical to be able to know the duration of this response. If we consider the duration of the antibody response after infection or vaccination, 4 basic scenarios have been described:
- A- Peak of antibodies after the onset of the disease followed by a gradual decrease until reaching a more or less stable plateau above the level of protection
- B- Less pronounced antibody peak after the onset of the disease followed by a gradual decline until reaching a more or less stable plateau above the level of protection
- C- Peak of antibodies after the onset of the disease followed by a gradual decline until reaching a low level of antibodies below the level of protection
- D- Slight initial peak of antibodies with a gradual decrease, without exceeding the protection level at any time
Although different options have been suggested for the permanence of protective antibodies depending on the slopes of their curves descent after the initial peak, it is currently believed that this is more complex and is conditioned by other factors and possibly the response is not it will be as long-lasting as occurs with measles, mumps and varicella-zoster viruses but rather will follow the model of the SARS-CoV-1 virus where antibodies decrease after 2 years.
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